theoretical perspectives on health

Which of the following is not part of the rights and responsibilities of a sick person under the functionalist perspective? According to Parsons, the sick person has a specific role with both rights and responsibilities. An example of medicalization is illustrated by the history of how our society views alcohol and alcoholism. Patients must perform the “sick role” in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. In this engraving from the nineteenth century, “King Alcohol” is shown with a skeleton on a barrel of alcohol. A related process is demedicalization, in which “sick” behavior is normalized again. Health Promotion Perspectives is an international platinum (open access) journal that is peer-reviewed and multidisciplinary forum for publication of those research that aimed at understanding of the implications and approaches to health promotion and public health. While this market solutions model has indeed provided many advances, a conflict theorist would likely respond that greater state-sponsored investment–with better public health outcomes as the goal–could also effect the same evolutions in treatment. While the functionalist perspective looks at how health and illness fit into a fully functioning society, the conflict perspective is concerned with how health and illness fit into the oppositional forces in society. This book clearly situates health communication within its social context. Retrieved from. However, this exemption is temporary and relative to the severity of the illness. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. Parsons argues that since the sick are unable to fulfill their normal societal roles, their sickness weakens the society. According to theorists working in this perspective, health and illness are both socially constructed. The cognitive approach studies how our thought process shapes our behavior. Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory, is one of the most extensively used models in nursing. Health communication is key to promoting good population and individual health outcomes. The Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH) promotes cooperation for public health on the island of Ireland. This first video clip gives some examples of ways that those with HIV are discriminated against, even within the medical community. Until we de-stigmatize the condition itself, and despite the implementation of policy, individual acts of discrimination will likely continue. During the Civil War era, slaves who frequently ran away from their owners were diagnosed with a mental disorder called drapetomania. Hiv.gov. Additionally, in their criticism of the power differential between doctor and patient, they are perhaps dismissive of the hard-won medical expertise possessed by doctors and not patients, which renders a truly egalitarian relationship more elusive. When health is a commodity, the poor are more likely to experience illness caused by inadequate diet, to live and work in unhealthy environments, and are less likely to challenge the system or its authority. They were called drunks, and it was not uncommon for them to be arrested or run out of a town. Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. (Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons), An example of medicalization is illustrated by the history of how our society views alcohol and alcoholism. Legal protections have been put in place, yet the stigma and discrimination remain prevalent. With alcoholism defined as a disease and not a personal choice, alcoholics came to be viewed with more compassion and understanding. Many factors like sex, age, type of illness, access to services and perceived quality of the services, inuences the health seeking behaviour. For many years now, homosexual couples have been denied spousal benefits, either in the form of health insurance or in terms of medical responsibility. The removal of homosexuality from the DSM is an example of ____________. It was very informative for myself and I … Watch this video to review and see examples of how each of these key paradigms views medicine. When health is a commodity, the poor are more likely to experience illness caused by poor diet, to live and work in unhealthy environments, and are less likely to challenge the system. Parsons argues that since the sick are unable to fulfill their normal societal roles, their sickness weakens the society. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. Theorists using the conflict perspective suggest that issues with the healthcare system, as with most other social problems, are rooted in capitalist society. OpenStax College, Sociology 2e. "Download for free at. Pharmaceutical companies make billions treating illnesses such as fatigue, insomnia, and hyperactivity that may not actually be illnesses in need of treatment. One of the theoretical perspectives of psychology is cognitive. The sick person is not responsible for his condition. Apply functionalist, conflict theorist, and interactionist perspectives to health issues. Thus, “badness” was transformed into “sickness.”. Under this perspective, as our perception of a condition changes, so do the social consequences of that condition. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. To start with, she has not chosen to be sick and should not be treated as responsible for her condition. During the latter half of the 20th century, however, people who drank too much were increasingly defined as alcoholics: people with a disease or a genetic predisposition to addiction who were not responsible for their drinking. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. In this model of health, doctors serve as gatekeepers, deciding who is healthy and who is sick—a relationship in which the doctor has all the power. Origins of this approach have emanated from multiple disciplines over the past century or more. The class, race, and gender inequalities in our healthcare system support the _____________ perspective. Read Text. But is it appropriate to allow doctors so broad discretion in deciding who is and is not sick? If the sick person stays ill longer than is appropriate (malingers), they may be stigmatized. Self-care can be defined as the care of oneself without medical, professional, or other assistance or oversight. It is not only the poor who suffer from the conflict between dominant and subordinate groups. Which theoretical perspective do you think best explains the sociology of health? In this view, people with money and power—the dominant group—are the ones who make decisions about how the health care system will be run. Should alcoholism and other addictions be medicalized? Talcott Parsons (1951) was the first to discuss this in terms of the sick role: patterns of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them. Therefore, it is sometimes necessary for various forms of social control to bring the behavior of a sick person back in line with normal expectations. What examples of medicalization and demedicalization can you think of? The Social System. In the United States, a disproportionate number of racial minorities also have less economic power, so they bear a great deal of the burden of poor health. 1951. We now turn to these four theoretical perspectives, which are summarized in Table 1.1 “Theory Snapshot”. While interactionism does acknowledge the subjective nature of diagnosis, it is important to remember who most benefits when a behavior becomes defined as illness or condition. The Critical Theoretical Perspectives and the Health Care System Daisy Michelle Princeton1 Abstract Background of the study: The goal of healthcare system is to achieve a well-organized, safe and holistic patient care. … Cognitive psychology believes that internal mental states such as desire, belief, ideas, and motivation exist. But is it appropriate to allow doctors so much power over deciding who is sick? (May 2017). They were called drunks, and it was not uncommon for them to be arrested or run out of a town. Further adding to the issue, doctors hold a disproportionate amount of power in the doctor/patient relationship, which provides them with extensive social and economic benefits. Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness. of Hours: 20 Term: Michaelmas Assessment Date: Week 16 Module Leader: Jean Morrissey Lecturers: Jean Morrissey, Mike Watts, Brian Keogh Aims They therefore ensure that they will have health care coverage, while simultaneously ensuring that subordinate groups stay subordinate through lack of access. Century or more to be sick and should not be treated as responsible for her condition theorists in... Or oversight know what your theoretical perspective do you think of with both rights and responsibilities as,... A specific role with both rights and responsibilities internal mental states such as desire, belief ideas... To allow doctors so much power over deciding who is and is not sick of deviance refers the... 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